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Mailman is a "listserv" or "email discussion group" type mailing list service provided by the Information Technology Services. Mailing lists have a wide variety of uses such as departmental communication, discussion groups, committee discussions, electronic newsletters, research collaboration, and group notifications just to name a few. Mailman lists are available to current faculty, staff and student organizations (through their faculty/staff adviser).
I. General Information1. What is a Mailman List?2. Why establish a list?3. What is the cost?4. Definition of Terms5. Who may own a list?6. List owner responsibilities7. Listmaster Responsibilities8. Requesting a List9. E-Mail Attachments10. Once your List is Created11. List configurationII. Mailing List Policies1. Hosting Policies2. Primary Owner Requirements3. Policy on List Renewal4. Policy on Deleting Lists5. Policy on Transfer of List Ownership6. List Backup Policy7. Modifying List Archives
III. GNU Mailman List Management1. Accessing Management Options2. General Options3. Membership Management4. Privacy Options5. Regular Member Options6. Digest Options7. Bounce Options8. Archival Options9. Mail News and News Mail Gateway Setings10. Auto Respond11. Other Administratiave ActionsIV. Resources1. Current PSU Lists2. Mailman List Application
What is a Mailman List?
Mailman is an electronic mailing list manager that offers an efficient way to disseminate information to large numbers of people and hold long-distance discussions among many people. Mailing lists are an easy way to reach a large audience quickly by automating the distribution of email to all those who subscribe to the mailing list. Mailing lists have become a critical component of scholarly collaboration. Many colleges and universities are also using them to conduct the day-to-day administration of their institution.
Why Establish a List?
The purpose of Mailman mailing lists at Pittsburg State University is to facilitate open communication and disseminate information. Mailing list services are available to current faculty, staff or student organizations. Lists are good for facilitating communication among faculty who share common interests, members of departments, members of student organizations, and members of various campus committees. (Participation in PSU lists is not limited to persons affiliated with PSU.) Another purpose for establishing a list is for information dissemination, such as periodic announcements and online newsletters. Such lists are called "one-way" lists. Subscribers receive posts from the owner but cannot send messages back to the list subscribers. The person responsible for managing a list is known as the list's "Primary Owner." If the Primary Owner leaves the University, they must find a new owner and identify this new person to the Listmaster. If no new list owner can be identified, the Listmaster reserves the right to delete the list. While we provide this service, neither ITS nor PSU can be held responsible for how it is used by others or for statements made on mailing lists.
What is the Cost?
There is no charge for Mailman mailing list services provided at PSU. The Office of Information Systems funds the costs of hardware, software, and staff support for this service. We will not host external lists for a fee. There are commercially operated FREE list hosting services that are readily available, including Topica, Yahoo Groups, and Coollist. There is a catch, however, in that the lists you run there are subject to advertising. If this is unacceptable, then a fee-based hosting service is an alternative. A good one is Lyris.
Definition of Terms
Primary Owner: (Note: All references to "owner" or "list owner" in this and other PSU Mailman documents denote the Primary Owner unless otherwise specified.)Each mailing list has one Primary Owner. This is the PSU faculty/staff person who requested the list's creation and who is ultimately responsible for the list. (For a registered campus/student organization, this must be the faculty adviser. For a Fraternity/Sorority, this must be the Greek Advisor.) The Primary Owner will remain on record as the responsible person until a service ticket for the email administrator is created and completed or the list is deleted. Contact the Gorilla Geeks to create such a ticket 620-235-4600. The Primary Owner can add and delete members, change the list's setup options, and perform list-administration functions. In most cases the Primary Owner will also act as the Maintenance Owner, but may appoint someone else as the Maintenance Owner as in the case of a student organization where the Primary Owner is the faculty advisor but the Maintenance Owner is a student officer/member of the organization. The Primary Owner should always maintain a subscription to their list so they can monitor for inappropriate use and enforce policies.
Maintenance Owner:A list has at least one Maintenance Owner, who may also be the Primary Owner. The Primary Owner may appoint a Maintenance Owner(s) but retains final responsibility for the operation of the list. The Maintenance Owner is responsible for the day-to-day workings of the list: solving subscription problems, handling mail-delivery error messages, and so forth. This owner receives email sent to the listname-owner and listname-admin addresses. This owner is also the Moderator for lists that have been set to require approval for posting messages. This owner can add and delete members, change the list's setup options, and perform list-administration functions.
Listmaster:Listmaster refers to the ITS staff member administering the Mailman mailing list system. This person creates new lists, deletes unneeded lists, maintains the overall integrity of the system, and enforces the mailing list policies.
Listname-owner / Listname-admin:These two terms are interchangeable in Mailman as both refer to the person called the Maintenance Owner. For example, email sent to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org will be delivered to the Maintenance Owner(s) for the list.
Moderated List:A moderated list is one that has been configured to require that every message posted to the list be approved by the moderator (usually the list owner) before it is distributed to the list members. A moderated list can be used to ensure that topics are kept relevant and appropriate but requires constant attention from the owner to keep discussions flowing smoothly.
Unmoderated List:With an unmoderated list, the members are able to freely post messages to the list with no approval from the list owner. Posting to an unmoderated list can be limited to current list members or open to anyone. Most lists are unmoderated, as this allows for more open and varied discussions, no delays waiting for moderator approval, and requires much less work on the part of the list owner.
One-Way List:One-way list refers to a list where only one person, or a small group of editors, can post messages to the list. This type of list is most often used for announcements or newsletters, where you do not want member's replies to be distributed to the entire subscriber base.
Public vs. Private Lists:Anyone visiting the PSU Mailman web page will see a listing of all publicly listed mailing lists at PSU. From this page they can view information about a list, subscribe to the list, view list archives (if the list is archived), and view a roster of list subscribers. However, the list owner can set varying degrees of access to all of these items, including whether or not the list shows up on the Mailman page. A list should be configured as public if it is intended for a wide variety of subscribers discussing a common interest. A private list is better suited for a smaller, well-defined group such as members of a committee.
Who may own a list?
To own a list, you must be a current PSU faculty or staff member. In addition, official student organizations may own lists (individual students may not). Student organizations must be registered with the Campus Activities Center and have a current faculty or staff member as the Primary Owner of their list. In order to effectively manage a list, you need reliable (daily) access to email and Internet services.
List Owner Responsibilities
The list owner is responsible for the smooth functioning of their list. Depending on the nature of the list, this can require as little as five minutes once per week or several hours per day. In any case a list owner must become familiar with Mailman, the electronic mailing list software in use at PSU. Specific list owner duties can range from adding and deleting subscribers to monitoring every message before it is distributed to the list. The responsibilities of the list owner include:
The Listmaster will not answer questions from subscribers but will instead refer them to the appropriate list owner. If the owner needs help, then he or she should contact the Tech Coordinator or Tech Support Consultant for their area. If the Tech Coordinator or Tech Support Consultant is unable to resolve an issue, they will contact the Listmaster for further assistance.
Requesting a List
To request a list, complete the Mailman Mailing List Application Form (requires GUS access). Applicants with questions about the form should request assistance from the Tech Coordinator or Tech Support Consultant for their area.
Not all requests will be honored with a list. The Listmaster may ask for additional documentation regarding the granting of a list. The Listmaster may recommend other electronic conferencing technology that would better serve the purpose of the request. Other considerations that will determine the status of a list request include the relevance of the list to the education, research, or administration of the University and the capacity of available resources within ITS including how the size of the proposed list will affect University electronic mail systems.
In 2-3 days the applicant will receive notification via email that the requested list has been created, the list password, and a link to the administrative web interface for the list.
The name of a list should convey the purpose and/or group served by the list. The name can be 3-15 characters in length and can be made up of letters, numbers and dashes (-) but cannot contain spaces. List names that use inappropriate language or appear to represent a different group than the one applying for the list will not be allowed. All list names will have "-L" appended to the end to identify them as lists and prevent them from being confused with individual email addresses since the list name will also be the email address of the list. For example: to send a message to the list "listowners-L" you would address your email to "listowners-L@pittstate.edu"
The distribution of large documents (PowerPoint presentations, Word documents, images, music, etc.) via a mailing list is highly discouraged. By default, Mailman lists restrict message size to 40K. While this size limit can be modified by the list owner, sending large files to numerous people at once can create problems. A message with a large attached file sent to a mailing list will be duplicated for each member of the list, which can place a heavy load on the PSU email system and network, affecting all PSU users. Some list members may not have sufficient free space in their email account to be able to receive a large message at all, thus generating error messages back to the list. Also consider that many list members will be receiving their mail at home, over a dial-up connection, and will not appreciate having to wait for large files to download. If you need to make large files available to your group, it is better to upload them to a web server and then simply distribute the link to the file via the mailing list.
Once your list is created
Subscribe Yourself to the ListList owners are not automatically subscribed to the lists they own. In order to participate in list discussions and monitor the topics and usage of your list, you will need to be a subscriber to the list. A link to the list subscription page is included in the initial email message you receive informing you the list has been created. This is the same page that others will need to visit to subscribe to your list. You may also send an email to "email@example.com" with the subject "subscribe", or "help" to either subscribe to the list or receive instructions for all available email-based commands.
Create a Welcome Message for Your ListSubscribers automatically receive a global, generic welcome message from Mailman telling them they have successfully subscribed and how to unsubscribe, if desired. You will receive the same welcome message after subscribing. As the list owner, you should create a list-specific welcome and information message to be appended to the global welcome message. To enter your list-specific message, follow the admin link provided in the email you received notifying you that your list had been created. Once there, enter the list password and enter your welcome text in the "new-subscriber welcome message" field in the General Options section. Be sure to click the "Submit Your Changes" button at the bottom of the screen to save your changes. This would also be a good time to enter a description of the list and its intended use in the "introductory description" field. This text will be displayed at the top of the "List Information" web page visited by potential subscribers.
As a list owner you will need to make several decisions regarding how your list should operate. The primary list-setup choices you will need to make when configuring a new list are: (default values are in bold)
Mailing List Policies
Mailman, a mailing list manager program, is administered and supported by the Office of Information Systems at Pittsburg State University for the benefit of the University community. Members of this community may request a Mailman mailing list to be created, provided they comply with the following policies. Lists that are hosted at PSU must meet the following requirements:
Primary Owner Requirements
A list's Primary Owner:
Policy on List Renewal
Yearly, in October, all Primary Owners will be sent an email asking them to confirm that they are still using their list and want it to be renewed for another year. If the list is still needed, the list will be renewed for another year. There is no limit on the number of times a list may be renewed, provided the list continues to meet PSU's hosting eligibility requirements (See section on Hosting Policies). If the list owner indicates that the list is no longer needed, it will be deleted. If no response is received from the Primary Owner within one month of the renewal notification, the list will be deleted.
Policy on Deleting Lists
Current list owners who no longer have a need for their list should request that the list be deleted. Only the Primary Owner may request to delete a list, deletion requests from Maintenance Owners, or others, will be referred to the Primary Owner. Deletion requests should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. The Listmaster will notify the Primary Owner once the list has been deleted.
Policy on Transfer of List Ownership
Primary OwnerThe current Primary Owner of a list may transfer ownership to someone else by submitting a transfer of ownership request via email to email@example.com. The request must contain the list name and the new owner's name, email address and phone number. The new owner must meet the requirements and assume the responsibilities of list ownership as outlined in the Primary Owner Requirements section above. The Listmaster will record the change and notify both the incoming and outgoing owner that the transfer has been completed.
Maintenance OwnerMaintenance Owners are selected and assigned by the Primary Owner of a list. Changing the Maintenance Owner(s) of a list is the responsibility of the Primary Owner and does not require the involvement of the Listmaster.
List Backup Policy
All lists are backed up daily. This includes the list headers (configuration profiles) and the subscriptions, as well as any associated files and message archives. Lists will be restored from backup upon request from the primary list owner. Note: Messages sent through non-archived lists are not stored on the server and therefore cannot be backed up or recovered.
Modifying a List's Archives
The messages of some lists are archived for reference purposes. These archives will not be altered in any way by the Listmaster. Requests to make an exception to this policy will be considered, but granted only when it can be compellingly demonstrated that harm to the University or members thereof will be avoided by doing so.
GNU Mailman List Management Guide v. 2.0Copyright (C) 1999, 2000 Aurora University, Christopher Kolar. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts specified, and with no Back-Cover Texts specified. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
This document is intended for persons who have the responsibility of managing mail lists that are being run by the GNU Mailman mail list manager. Note that this document is not intended for people who are only list members, and this document is not intended to serve as a technical document that tells system administrators about installing or managing the software. This document instead recognizes that Mailman makes it possible for normal end users to take over responsibility for management of a mail list and attempts to provide them with the information necessary to effectively use the features of Mailman to become self-sufficient in doing so.
This document attempts to follow the layout of Mailman's management screens as seen by the list manager and are valid for version 2.0. This document is currently being maintained by Christopher Kolar (firstname.lastname@example.org) and is copyright Aurora University. Please note that an Manager's Quick Referenceis available, in operation we have found that it solves about 90% of list owners' problems.
The most recent version of Mailman is available at www.list.org, where there are also instructions on how to join the highly useful user mail list.
Accessing Management Options
When you access your management settings using your list management page you will be prompted for the password. Once you authenticate to the server you will be shown the General Options page for you list and will also see a listing of the other categories of settings that are available. For all of these categories you will be able to make changes using your browser, but the changes will not go into effect until you go to the bottom of the screen and click the "Submit Your Changes" button. Changes will then be immediately put into effect -- nothing needs to be changed or restarted on the list server itself.
The remainder of this document will talk about each of the settings as they appear in the configuration categories for your list. Note that each list server is configured with different default settings, so this document does not assume that any particular setting will be the default when you look at your own list.
After you are authenticated by the server, you will be taken into Mailman's General Options screen. Note that at the top of each of Mailman's configuration screens you will see links to each of the configuration categories. This document will cover all of the settings in each of the configuration categories.
Mailman's general options allow you to specify most of the ways that your mail list will interact with the web server and how it will present itself to the users. The text in the "setting" should match the settings that you see in v2 of Mailman. The description content provides a brief description of each setting as well as guidelines for use when appropriate.
Note: the persons listed as administrators do not automatically receive copies of list traffic. If they want to participate in the list they must also add their address as a subscriber.
Note: in v2 of Mailman there is no way to prevent persons from leaving a list. If you are running a list where participation is mandatory (such as a course or a list of system users) you may want to include something in this area to let them know that they should not be leaving the list.
While the program suggests that this be set to poster, you should consider the purpose of the list in selecting this value. Lists that intend to focus on discussion are best set to "list" to encourage conversation. Lists used for announcements are best set to poster to prevent unwanted traffic and the inadvertent broadcast of replies.
The notification that you receive will include a URL that will take you to the pending administrative requests page detailed near the end of this document.
Note: Mailman does not currently let the list manager block persons from leaving the list. If you are running a list for something like a course or committee, where participation is mandatory, make sure to have this set this to "yes" so you will be informed of unauthorized departures.
Note: If you are migrating large lists over to Mailman, or if you are creating new lists using the mass subscribe feature, you may want to deactivate this initially so that the manager is not flooded with innumerable subscribe notices.
If you do not wish to have a limit on the size of message, set this value to 0.
The membership management section allows you to do two things: add/remove users from your list, or adjust custom user settings.
Adding and Removing Members
The addition and removal of members is done thought the membership management screen. When you access this screen you will be shown a table listing all of your subscribers as well as their current member settings. Through this screen Mailman allows the list manager to remove an individual from their mail list, but the method is not entirely intuitive.
Find the line with the e-mail address of the individual that you would like to remove.
Mailman allows a list manager to add people for their mail list through this screen, but the method is not intuitively named.
Note: You will almost always want to send new subscribers the welcome message so that they have their password and the information necessary to customize their configuration.
Note: Network etiquette generally frowns on opt-out lists apart from their common use within an organization for official communications and notices -- adding unsuspecting persons to a list and then telling them that they can leave if they want. Do not use Mailman for unconscionable activities such as sending Spam.
In the main table each participants address is shown along with the current options for that user's list settings. As list administrator you have the capability to modify any of the options for each of your subscribers. Modifications are made by checking or unchecking the boxes for each feature on the row corresponding to the subscriber's settings that you wish to change. After making the modifications you need to click the "Submit Your Changes" button at the bottom of the screen to put them into effect. Note that because these settings are user configurable not all users may have the same settings when you look at this page. Do not be alarmed, it simply means that they have taken the time to modify their settings.
Mailman's bounce feature may also set a user to nomail status if mail to their address experiences delivery problems. See the section on bounce handling for more information.
Mailman was created with the privacy shortcomings of other lists in mind. There are a number of manager-configurable settings that can help in preventing spam, subscription abuse, and widespread disclosure of list traffic to non-subscribers.
By setting this value to "no," this list will not be included in the directory of available lists.
Require Approval: when a subscription request is made a note will be sent to the list administrator letting them know that a person is petitioning to join. The list administrator will be given a URL to follow that will then show them the request and allow them to approve or deny it via the web.
Confirm+Approval: includes both of the above.
Anyone: this allows anyone in the world to browse by and take a look at who the members of your list are. Never ever use this setting unless you are trying to say "I have contempt for all of my list members and hope that they get spammed out of their minds."
List members: this is the traditional setting for most lists, allowing participants to see who the other people on the list are but blocking view to the general public. This settings can be overridden by individual users who have set the "hide" option for their account.
List admin only: only the administrator can see the list members.
General posting filters
Mailman allows you a good deal of control over who may and may not post to the list. Because there is a bit of good old-fashioned logic involved some people may be confused by these settings. Please see the chart following the descriptions of the settings for an illustration of how these settings work in concert.
Note: there is a use to setting this to no, see the chart below.
Posting privileges explained
The posting privileges settings outlined above actually interact with one another. This chart will help to explain their use so that you can optimally configure your posting privileges. Each box shows who may post for each of the configurations.
Spam-specific posting filters
Regular Member Options
These are options that affect the normal mail traffic that is delivered immediately and individually to list members.
Note: including this footer information will cut down on the number of times list users will have to contact the list administrator asking for things such as their configuration access information and the like.
These options affect the way that the list will process messages that are to be delivered to subscribers in the form of a digest. Unlike other mail list managers, the digest feature of Mailman is built into the package and it easy to activate and configure.
Note: There are some instances, such as a list for emergency announcements, where you want mail to be delivered immediately in all cases and where you would want to disable the digest feature.
Note: By default, the daily dispatch time is noon (server time). If you want to be sure of the time that your daily dispatch goes out ask the system administrator of your system.
Unlike many other mail list managers, Mailman includes built-in bounce handlers to help the list manager deal with address that have delivery problems. If you run large lists with dynamic membership then these settings may save you a lot of time in helping to weed out addresses that go bad.
Do nothing: Mailman will keep attempting to deliver to the address despite the futility of the effort -- this setting in effect disable automatic bounce handling.
Disable and notify: Mailman set the problem account to "nomail" status and notifies you of the problem.
Disable and DON'T notify: sets problem account to "nomail" status but doesn't bother you with the details.
Remove and notify me: removes the problem account from the list and sends a note to the list manager.
Unlike other mail list managers, Mailman has a built-in archival feature that is easily activated and configured by the list manager.
Note: think carefully about whether your list membership wants their identities and postings made available to the world at large by making the archive public. Public access means that web spiders will be able to store and make available member's writings outside of the context of the list to which they were posted to the list.
Mail-News and News-Mail Gateway Settings
In the event that you find it useful to gate your list traffic onto USENET, you can use these settings to set up the service. Note that you may need to talk to your system or network administrator to make sure that your news server will work nicely with this list gateway.
A new feature in Mailman v2 is the inclusion of Auto-responder functionality. This feature allows a list administrator to specify that automated responses be sent in a number of different circumstances. The top of this screen shows a number of strings that can be inserted into the response text in order to craft responses with text that is specific to the list that is using the auto-responder.
Other Administrative Activities
In addition to the web-based access to list settings, Mailman provides three links at the top of each administrative page for "other" activities.
Tend to pending administrative requests.
There are primarily three instances when you will need to tend to administrative requests. Whether the administrator is notified immediately for each request or just once per day is dictated by the switch in Mailman's general settings section. Note that if you have multiple requests pending you can work your way down the page clicking the appropriate action for each request before submitting them all at once. You do not need to click on the submit action on this page after answering individual requests.
1. When a posting is held because it was posted by a non-member. If you are running a list on which only members can post, items that are being held for review will appear in this section for your review. As the list administrator you have four actions available on this screen.
When choosing the action you will have two additional options:
2. When you operate a moderated list, you will use this feature to accept or reject postings following the same guidelines as for non-members postings above.
3. When you operate a list where subscription requires administrator approval, user petitions to join will be listed on this page. You should click accept or deny as appropriate.
Go to the general list information page.
Following this link takes you to the list's "public" information page. This is the page that your subscribers use to log in and modify their settings, it is also the gateway to the list archive.
Edit the HTML for the public list pages.
Mailman allows you to customize the look and feel for many of the pages that are accessible by your list subscribers. This is nice if you want to take the time to "brand" web pages. The following pages can be customized:
When you follow the link to a particular page you are shown the source HTML in a browser window. In order to make modification you will need to know how to write raw HTML code and insert it in the proper places in the page source. It is important to note that within the source there are embedded Mailman fields that are inserter on-the-fly when the user loads the page. You can identify the Mailman fields because they are enclosed in angle brackets and are of the form <MM-Field-Name>
It is suggested that you not make modifications to the Mailman field tags unless you are an advanced user who understands the implications of modifying or removing these fields.
GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.1, March 2000 Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
2. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
8. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail.
9. TERMINATION You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
Copyright (C) 1999, 2000 Aurora University, Christopher Kolar. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts specified, and with no Back-Cover Texts specified. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License"
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